Archive for the ‘Egyptian Vulture’ Tag

North India part 4: Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur, Rajasthan: 25th-26th November 2019   Leave a comment

This is the fourth post on our trip to India in 2019. We wanted a mixture of watching wildlife and cultural sites, a combination that isn’t easy to find on most commercial tour. The trip arranged by Jo Thomas at Wild About Travel was to our specifications and perfectly combined India’s wonderful temples, ancient buildings and unique way of life with watching Tigers, Blackbucks and loads of birds.

This post covers one of the most famous wildlife reserves in the world, officially called the Keoladeo National Park but universally known by the name of the adjacent city – Bharatpur.

 

To save me typing it here is the description of the reserve from Wikipedia: Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India is a famous avifauna sanctuary that hosts thousands of birds, especially during the winter season. Over 230 species of birds are known to be resident. It is also a major tourist centre with scores of ornithologists arriving here in the winter season. It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971. It is also a World Heritage Site. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a man-made and man-managed wetland and one of the national parks of India. The reserve protects Bharatpur from frequent floods, provides grazing grounds for village cattle, and earlier was primarily used as a waterfowl hunting ground. The 29 km2 reserve is locally known as Ghana, and is a mosaic of dry grasslands, woodlands, woodland swamps and wetlands. These diverse habitats are home to 366 bird species, 379 floral species, 50 species of fish, 13 species of snakes, 5 species of lizards, 7 amphibian species, 7 turtle species and a variety of other invertebrates.  Every year thousands of migratory waterfowl visit the park for wintering and breeding. The sanctuary is one of the richest bird areas in the world and is known for nesting of resident birds and visiting migratory birds including water birds. The rare Siberian cranes used to winter in this park but this central population is now extinct. According to founder of the World Wildlife Fund Peter Scott, Keoladeo National Park is one of the world’s best bird areas.

 

 

Again from Wikipedia: The sanctuary was created 250 years ago and is named after a Keoladeo (Shiva) temple within its boundaries. (see photo above). Initially, it was a natural depression; and was flooded after the Ajan Bund was constructed by Maharaja Suraj Mal, then the ruler of the princely state of Bharatpur, between 1726–1763. The bund was created at the confluence of two rivers, the Gambhir and Banganga. The park was a hunting ground for the Maharajas of Bharatpur, a tradition dating back to 1850, and duck shoots were organised yearly in honour of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, over 4,273 birds such as mallards and teals were killed by Lord Linlithgow, then Viceroy of India.[citation needed] The park was established as a national park on 10 March 1982. Previously the private duck shooting preserve of the Maharaja of Bharatpur since the 1850s, the area was designated as a bird sanctuary on 13 March 1976 and a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981. The last big shoot was held in 1964 but the Maharajah retained shooting rights until 1972. In 1985, the Park was declared a World Heritage Site under the World Heritage Convention. It is a reserve forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 and therefore, is the property of the State of Rajasthan of the Indian Union. In 1982, grazing was banned in the park, leading to violent clashes between local farmers and the government.

 

During the days of the Raj the site was renowned as a great place for shooting wildfowl. Looking at this tally board that’s still on display it was possible to shoot many thousands of birds in a single day. Of course due to the widespread destruction of breeding sites throughout Asia there are nowhere near as many birds visiting as in the past but a visit to ‘Bharaptpur’ still remains one of the world’s top birding experiences. I don’t like the shooting of wildfowl but it would be fair to say that the reserve probably wouldn’t be in its current state without the patronage of shooters in years gone by.

 

I visited Bharatpur before in 1986 and at that time it was one of the best birding experiences of my life. We were there for nearly three days compared to a day and a half this time and saw a truly awesome number of birds. By the time 2019 had come around it was highly unlikely that I would get any ‘life birds’ at the site but I wanted Margaret to experience it’s avian richness and of course enjoy it myself.

 

Our journey from the hotel to the park and around the park itself was by bicycle rickshaw with our bird guide cycling along beside. In true Indian fashion we were taken the wrong way down a duel carriageway!

 

Once in the park you realise that you’re not the only one using a bicycle rickshaw. Most of the rest of this quite extensive post is a collection of bird and other wildlife photos interspersed with a few habitat shots and there is only a limited amount I can say about each.

 

One of the first species encountered is one I know well from home, indeed it even occurs in my garden. Originally confined to the Orient and Middle East Eurasian Collared Doves expanded its range rapidly in the 20th century spreading across Europe and reaching the UK in the late 50s. It soon became a common bird in towns and gardens. Soon afterwards some Collared Doves either escaped or were released in the Bahamas and rapidly spread to the USA where they are now common (I believe) from coast to coast.

 

Along the central track we saw these Grey Francolins.

 

I have shown a few photos of Jungle Babblers on earlier posts, here we saw their cousins Large Grey Babblers …

 

… which as you have probably realised are a bit larger and a bit greyer.

 

As with several other sites we visited Spotted Owlets were easy to see at their daytime roost.

 

They could be seen indulging in a bit of mutual preening, so-called allopreening.

 

There were several colonies of Indian Fruit Bats.

 

Between the various lagoons, known locally as jheels, were a series of paths were we could see …

 

… a variety of species such as Eurasian Hoopoe …

 

… here of the greyer Asian race saturatus

 

Also seen were Yellow-footed Green Pigeons and Bank Mynas …

 

… the inevitable Coppersmith Barbets …

 

… and the personata race of White Wagtail, sometimes known as Masked Wagtail. These breed in the Tien Shan of Kazakhstan unlike the race leucopsis that we saw on the Chambal River that breeds in China.

 

Also present were a few Citrine Wagtails, wintering from further north in Asia. This is probably an adult female as 1st winters lack the yellow tones.

 

Bharatpur is famous for its pythons and we found this individual in ditch along side the path, but it was nowhere a big as the one I saw on my 1986 visit which must have been 5m long.

 

Is this another snake or just a Purple Heron having a preen?

 

Other species included Pied Stonechat …

 

… White-cheeked Bulbul …

 

… Rufous Treepie …

 

… a roosting Dusky Eagle Owl …

 

… and a Greater Coucal.

 

Around the jheels we saw a wide range of waterbirds …

 

… from familiar ones like Common Kingfisher (the same species that occurs in the UK) …

 

… to the mush larger White-breasted Kingfisher which has a range from Turkey and the Levant through to SE Asia.. This species used to be known as Smyrna Kingfisher after the ancient city of the same name on the Turkish coast. More recently Symrna has been renamed Izmir.

 

The species once known as ‘purple gallinule’ has been renamed Swamphen to distinguish it from the bird known as Purple Gallinule in North America. Then it was split into six species with the ones in India becoming Grey-headed Swamphen.

 

Another inhabitant of these wet grassy meadows was Bronze-winged Jacana, which in spite of appearances is a species of shorebird/wader and not a rail! We only saw a single Pheasant-tailed Jacana which is surprising as they were as common as Bronze-winged on my last visit.

 

A female and two immature Knob-billed Geese …

 

… but only the male has the ‘knob bill’. This species has recently been split from the South American version which is now called Comb Duck.

 

Another species of duck that we saw regularly was the Indian Spot-bill.

 

We only saw a few Woolly-necked Storks, the Asian race is sometimes treated as a separate species from the one in Africa on the basis of bronze colouration on the wing coverts and paler face.

 

We only saw a single Saddle-billed Stork this compares to a dozen or more that I saw in 1986. In general big wetland birds; cranes, storks and wetland breeding raptors are doing badly in Asia. In 1986 we saw 37 Siberian Cranes at Bhartapur; now the western population of this species, which used to winter here, is reduced to a single individual which winters in Iran. Pallas’ Fish Eagle is another species that used to occur and we saw regularly in 86 but has now vanished.

 

The male of this species has a black eye whilst the female has a nice golden colour. In spite of losses in India this species has a wide range and its stronghold is probably the wetlands of northern Australia.

 

Many waterbirds breed on the jheels but at this time of year most are using the trees as roosting sites. In this photo mainly Great Cormorants, Painted Storks and Black-headed Ibis.

 

A closer view of a pair of Painted Storks with a couple of immatures and two Black-headed Ibis.

 

And an even closer view of one of the adults.

 

Of the most obvious feature of the site was the herons, as well as the expected Great, Little and Cattle Egrets there were good numbers of Purple Herons …

 

… Black-crowned Night Herons …

 

… and even (after a bit of searching) rarer species like Yellow Bittern …

 

… and Black Bittern.

 

Little and Large: The saw three species of cormorant, here are the eponymous Great Cormorant and Little Cormorant. The third one (not shown) breaks the naming convention and goes by the name of Indian Cormorant.

 

This is not a cormorant but a darter, a different Family comprising of just four species, sometimes known as ‘snake birds’, with one occurring in each of the Australasian, Afrotropical and Oriental regions and another in the Americas. This is, perhaps unsurprisingly, named Oriental Darter.

 

This darter has got some fishing net caught around its bill, presumably obtained outside the park as no fishing occurs within. The staff were attempting to capture it to remove the netting, I hope they succeeded.

 

I mentioned in the last post how vulture numbers in India have dropped to <1% of their former numbers due to poisoning with the vetinary drug that we know as Volterol or Diclofenac. One species that has survived better than the others is Egyptian Vulture, whether this is because it can metabolise the drug or feeds less on the poisoned cattle carcasses, I don’t know. This was the only vulture species we saw on the trip.

 

There were many raptors around the site such as this Western Marsh Harrier, a bird we are familiar with from the UK (you have to go a lot further east than India before you encounter Eastern Marsh Harrier).

 

Less familiar to us was Crested Serpent Eagle, this bird with the pale forehead and supercillium is an immature …

 

… whilst this is an adult.

 

We also saw Greater Spotted Eagle (seen here with two Black Drongos) and an Indian Spotted Eagle. Indian Spotted Eagle has been split from the more westerly Lesser Spotted Eagle and as my recollection of seeing it in 1986 is somewhat vague I was very pleased to catch up with it.

 

Greater Spotted Eagle can be identified in flight by the larger number of ‘fingers’ in the outer wing but is a bit trickier when perched, the shaggy nape and the gape extending up to but not beyond the centre of the eye are key features. All these large Palearctic eagles used to go by the scientific name of as Aquila clanga. Now for reasons I don’t understand it has been transferred to the new genus Clanga, so its now Clanga clanga! If anyone would ever reverse this decision they would be dropping a clanger!!

 

We were very pleased to come across a group of five Grey-headed Lapwing (three of which are pictured here), a species I’ve several times before in Asia but never as far west as this.

 

‘All the Birds of the World’ the single volume from Lynx Edicions which illustrates every bird in the world shows 24 species of Vanellus plover of which Grey-headed of course is one. One of the 24 is almost certainly extinct but I’m glad to say I’ve seen all but one of the others (Brown-chested, which I missed in Uganda).

 

Another Vanellus plover, Red-wattled Lapwing in the background and a Common Moorhen to the left but the star of this photo is the impressively named Indian Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle.

 

On our last morning we sort out some birds that skulked in the vegetation that fringed the jheels, these Pied Mynas were easy enough to see …

 

… as were Black Redstarts (here a female of one of the red-breasted Central Asia races).

 

Wintering birds from Siberia included Bluethroat …

 

… but best of all was this superb Siberian Rubythroat that entertained us for some time, recalling seeing that one at Osmington Mills in Dorset in 1997, (a sighting so remarkable that some still claim it was an escape from captivity)

 

Unlike Tadoba, the previous national park we visited, Bharatpur doesn’t have any dangerous wildlife (hence all the tourists travelling around on bikes or rickshaws) but we did hear there was a Leopard in one (closed off) area. However we did see a few mammals such Rhesus Macaque …

 

… which scanned the tourists carefully for any sign of a free meal …

 

… several Golden Jackals were seen …

 

… a female Nilgai (with Purple Heron) …

 

… Indian Grey Mongoose …

 

… the inevitable Palm Squirrel …

 

… and Wild Boar.

 

I’m sure if we had spent more time at Bharatpur we could have seen more species in this wonderful park but we had to move on this time to the city of Jaipur. There was a site on route where the rare Indian Spotted Creeper, a life bird for me, could be found. Wild About Travel had arranged for our guide Gaj to accompany us and see if he could find the creeper. Unfortunately the creeper wasn’t at home but we did see a few other quality birds.

 

The next post will be about our visit to the historic city of Jaipur.

The Canary Islands part 1: Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura: 29/01/18 – 01/02/18   Leave a comment

This post and the next one cover a recent week-long trip to the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. The first describes our first full day on Gran Canaria and our two days on Fuerteventura. The next will cover our final three days, all on Gran Canaria.

We were looking for somewhere to have a quiet week together without long flights, having to travel to Heathrow etc. It seemed a good idea to take a break during the winter as we had few other commitments at this time of year. Gran Canaria was an obvious choice, partly because I had never been there but mainly because the Blue Chaffinch on that island has recently been split from the much commoner and easier to find Blue Chaffinch on Tenerife, which I saw back in 1984.

We chose a package deal that flew from Hurn Airport (now often called Bournemouth Airport in spite of the fact that it’s at Hurn and not Bournemouth) and booked a hire car for the week. As well as some birding we hoped it might be warm enough to go to the beach and maybe even take a dip.

On the birding front things became more complicated when a Dwarf Bittern from tropical Africa turned up on nearby Fuerteventura. Although I had seen this species in Uganda it was only a flight view and besides, it would make a good Western Palaearctic tick. In addition, on my 1989 trip to Fuerteventura our view of Houbara Bustard was very distant. This didn’t bother me at the time as I had seen it well (or so I thought) in Israel in 1982. However in the 90s the Asian and the African forms of Houbara were split and I was left with just this unsatisfactory view of the African form.

Logical thing then was to fly from Gran Canaria to Fuerteventura for a couple of days, even though this meant doubling up on hotel and car hire costs.

All in all it was a successful trip, however even for experienced travellers like us, this ‘easy’ holiday threw up a number of pitfalls.

 

The Canary Islands, also known as the Canaries are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located on the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest. The seven main islands are (from largest to smallest in area) Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago’s beaches, climate and important natural attractions, especially Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide (a World Heritage Site) in Tenerife (the third tallest volcano in the world measured from its base on the ocean floor), make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year, especially Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. (Information copied from Wikipedia). I visited Tenerife and La Gomera in July 1984 and Fuerteventura and Lanzarote in February 1989.

 

The recent split of the critically endangered Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch meant that seeing it was the top priority on the trip, but with four days at our disposal I didn’t think it would be a problem. However we came out of our hotel on the first day and found our hire car had gone. Apparently they had tarmacked the area in front of the hotel overnight and had towed our car away! The drive to the forest of Pajonales near El Juncal took far longer than I expected due to steep and winding roads, so it was about 1000 by the time we arrived. Although it was obviously going to be colder than the coast, I hadn’t expected it to be 4c, thick mist and heavy rain and we weren’t really dressed for those conditions. Given the late hour and the dreadful weather I concluded that today would be just a recce …

 

… however just 200m from the car I was pointing out at Great Spotted Woodpecker (endemic race) to Margaret when she said ‘what’s those small birds above it?’ Yes, they were the Blue Chaffinches. They are separated from their cousins on Tenerife by the dark band over the bill, white wing bars, greyer plumage and quite different call note – a monosyllabic uit compared to a disyllabic tchap-chie. Photo credit: see below.

The song of the two species is very different too.

Here is the Common Chaffinch like song of Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch taken from Xeno Canto: https://www.xeno-canto.org/356448

And here the song of the Tenerife Blue Chaffinch:  https://www.xeno-canto.org/354887

 

Here is the female. Our birds were not colour ringed (apparently many are in order to aid ongoing research into the survival of this threatened species with an estimated population of just 200 individuals). Our initial views were quite poor as the birds were high in the tree and our binoculars soon got covered with rain but about 500m further on we saw them (or another pair) again, this time lower down and we were able to scope them. Of course given the conditions I didn’t get any photos, so these two shots have been copied from Wikipedia and were taken by Miguel Angel Pena Esteve.

 

Another species we were to see in the Pajonales was the African Blue Tit. A recent split from Eurasian Blue Tit, it is comprised of four races in the Canaries and two in North Africa. Two of the races, the one on La Palma and the one in NE Libya have been tipped as possible future splits. The La Palma form could easily be seen in the future but getting to NE Libya safely might be a different matter. The races on the central Canaries differ from the others by the lack of a wing bar and also, in the case of the the La Palma birds, by the lack of a white belly. Again conditions were too poor for photos so this is taken from the Internet Bird Collection and was photographed by Erkki Lehtovirta on Gran Canaria. https://www.hbw.com/ibc

 

Once we were away from the forest the weather improved somewhat. It seems like the valley was channeling up moist air from the Atlantic and dumping it as rain on the forest. Perhaps this is why it remains the largest area of surviving pristine Canarian Pine forest on the island and why nearly all of the Blue Chaffinches are found here.

 

We soon came across our first Canary Islands Chiffchaff. When I visited Tenerife in the early 80s this was just a race of Chiffchaff and was undoubtedly given little attention. With species status comes critical examination and it was great to note the very different song, brown colouration with paler underparts, long thin upturned supercilium, very short primary projection (the birds are of course non migratory so evolution will favour a shorter wing) and as a result the comparatively shorter tail.

More from Xeno Canto:

The familiar song of Common Chiffchaff: https://www.xeno-canto.org/396148

The call and then song of Canary Island Chiffchaff: https://www.xeno-canto.org/45371

 

Although the rain had eased our time in these scenic mountains was still hampered by low cloud.

 

Occasionally the spire of Roque Nublo would appear through the mist.

 

Other birds we saw in the mountains included Berthelot’s Pipit which is endemic to the Canary Islands, the Salvages and Madeira …

 

…. and of course the Atlantic Canary which is endemic to the Azores, Madeira and the Canaries. It is generally thought that the name Canary Islands derive from these birds, but that is untrue. Roman sailors who landed on Gran Canaria in the 1st C AD found many dogs (although apparently they didn’t find the dog’s owners who must have remained in hiding) and they named the island Insula Canaria or ‘Isle of Dogs’.

 

Eventually the sun broke through the clouds giving views of the volcanic spires and buttes. The Canaries are, of course, of volcanic origin and three islands Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma still show some activity today or in the recent past.

 

Small towns and villages nestled on steep slopes were the norm.

 

We debated whether to return the way we had come from the south (as there were a number of scenic lookouts that we had just driven past without stopping) or to continue northwards to Artena and then descent to the west coast. We chose the latter.

 

The westward descent through the Barranco de la Aldea was long and tortuous …

 

… with many towering side canyons and increasingly arid conditions.

 

So steep was the barranco in places …

 

… that locals had cut directly into the cliff face to build their homes.

 

However there were a number of reservoirs in the valley but we found nothing on them except a few Coots and Yellow-legged Gulls.

 

Eventually we saw the Atlantic ocean ahead of us and in due course we arrived in the town of La Aldea de San Nicolas.

 

If we thought that was the end of our mountain drive we were mistaken, the onward road to Mogan involve numerous steep climbs and hairpin bends, albeit on a wider road.

 

Beyond Mogan we were able to pick up the GC1 motorway and return to our resort. It had been a long but very rewarding day. Only about 120km of driving, but with the exception of the last bit on the motorway, almost all of it in second and third gear. That evening we checked if resurfacing was going on tonight as we had an early departure. We were advised to put the car in a pay and display car park that wouldn’t be resurfaced. However on our return from a meal in town we found they were closing the entire access road to our resort. ‘Closed until 0700’ was the answer to our inquiry, we would have been in the air by then. We had to move the car but all parking was taken up a km away.

 

The following morning we had to get up at 0350, walk with all the gear to the car and drive to the airport. Of course we got there in good time but you never take chances with being late when you’re flying. We arrived on Fuerteventura just as it was getting light and set off in search of the Dwarf Bittern.

 

After some driving over fairly rough terrain we arrived at Barranco de Rio Cabras, a dry vegetated wadi or gully that runs to the sea just north of the airport.

 

In places the barranco has been dammed producing some semi-permanent pools.

 

Unfortunately our time there was far from comfortable, during the first three hours we were hit with three heavy downpours, the sort that you can see and hear sweeping towards you across the desert. During one of them this Common Buzzard of the endemic race insularum was forced to land and seek shelter.

 

More notable was multiple sightings of Canary Island Chat. This bird really should be called Fuerteventuran Chat as it is found on this island and nowhere else.

 

This is a male, the female is a rather nondescript brown.

 

Fuerteventura still has a population of Egyptian Vultures. This species, like most vultures, has seen a huge decline in recent years.

 

There were quite a lot of birds on the pools in the barranco, Black-winged Stilts, Green Sandpipers, Common Snipe, Little Ringed PLovers plus a couple of Hoopoes. The ones that surprised me though were Ruddy Shelduck, this species was only a vagrant to the island when I visited in 1989, now I understand they are quite common wherever there is water and have been breeding here since 1994. However try as we might we couldn’t find the Dwarf Bittern. After getting wet for the third time we opted to return to the car, dry out and eat some lunch. Unfortunately Margaret fell on the now slippery rocks and so decided to stay at the car and rest. Crossing the barranco was tricky too as the dry bed had now become a river!

 

I returned, but after another hour there was still no sign of it, then a tour group (from the company Heatherlea) appeared on the far side of the barranco and after a while found the bittern. It must have sheltering so close the south wall that it was invisible from above. Try as I might I still couldn’t see it but by returning upstream to the crossing point and then following the rim until I joined them I could make it out sheltering in a bush. It then crossed to our side ….

 

…. and gave some great views. I understand that this bird wasn’t seen after today until the day we departed (5th Feb) probably because there were many other wet areas for it to explore upstream and down. As I said earlier this is a very hard bird to see well in tropical Africa and birders have flown from all across Europe to see this individual, apparently the 6th for the Canaries and for Spain.

 

Margaret opted not to join me back at the barranco so I returned to the car and we set off for the rocky Tindaya plain in the north of the island.

 

Initially apart from a few Berthelot’s Pipits and Lesser Short-toed Larks there was little showing but as late afternoon approached we drove slowly around the tracks looking for Houbara Bustard.

 

 

As I indicated earlier my previous views of this species were pretty distant. Populations east of the Nile Valley have been separated as MacQueen’s Bustard (or Asian Houbara) and I have seen them in Israel where they are resident, western India where they winter and Kazakhstan where they breed. Although I am sure that I did see a Houbara in 1989 on Fuerteventura I have always wished for a decent view and to be able note the differences between it and its Asian cousin.

 

The differences between the African and Asia species are small but significant, involving the crown and black neck feathers and there are differences in the nature of the display and vocalisations during display. It is thought that due to these differences that although birds from each species could cross the narrow habitat divide of the Nile Valley they would not interbreed with each other if they did. We only saw one Houbara whilst a friend of mine who went recently saw up to 12. I wanted to stay on till dusk in the hope of finding more but Margaret wisely said we should find our hotel and return at dawn for more views.

 

We found a supermarket to the north and stocked up on food for breakfast and lunch. Whilst Margaret was inside shopping I was in the car park photographing Spanish Sparrows …

 

… and Laughing Doves, a recent colonist from Africa.

 

Nearby we had excellent views of Algerian Hedgehog at the side of the road.

 

With dusk coming on we drove to our booked accommodation just east of the village of Guisguey. Trouble was we just couldn’t find it. We drove up and down the narrow roads, were threatened by one local and graciously helped by others but nobody knew where it was. It didn’t help that phone reception was poor and maps and booking.com who we booked via were no help at all. After an hour or more we decided it was a scam (I think now it was just a case of very bad directions) and opted to look for a hotel in the capital Puerto del Rosario. Trouble was that the rain was now torrential and in the dark it was hard to see the car in front of you let alone find a hotel. We later found that the capital city has only two hotels neither of which were signposted or visible on my phone app!

 

Unfortunately most Fuerteventuran accommodation is in the form of holiday apartment complexes like this, rather than hotels that provide a one-night stay.

 

We found ourselves well south of the capital and south of the airport (photo taken the next day as it was now dark) …

 

… fortunately about 8pm, having been searching for several hours we found this hotel with an all-inclusive dinner and breakfast. Hardly surprisingly we didn’t get to the Tindaya plain for dawn!

 

However we did return as early as we could and saw several Southern Grey Shrikes …

 

… the unusually small but surprisingly common endemic race of Northern Raven …

 

… and the delightful Cream-coloured Courser. This desert bird can be found from the Canaries and Cabo Verde in a band across the desert to western India. It has even turned up in the UK.

 

The right-hand courser might be a little out of focus but the left-hand one shows the remarkable pattern on the nape.

 

We birded at several other localities on the island including the reservoir at Los Molinas where Ruddy Shelduck were abundant and we also saw four Spoonbills …

 

… before calling in at some salinas which have now been turned into a ‘salt making museum’. But at least this means that the Barbary Ground Squirrels habituated and are hand tame.

 

Introduced from North Africa these cute critters seem to be doing well, not surprisingly as all the tourists feed them tit-bits.

 

We also had great views of Southern Grey Shrike. A study some years ago showed that from a genetic basis the ‘great grey shrike’ complex could be split into multiple species, one of which would be endemic to the Canaries. However genetics and morphology don’t really match and no firm decisions have been made. IOC currently recognised four species but this could change in either direction in the future.

 

We got to hear this one sing, something I have never heard with north European Great Grey Shrikes.

 

Well it was now time to head to the airport and return to Gran Canaria, passing over Puerto del Rosario as we did.

 

Although the light was fading we could see the shoreline and the barrancos of the northern part of the island …

 

… before the plane turned to the west revealing the whole western coast of Fuerteventura.

 

So ended our short visit to Fuerteventura, like my 1989 visit before it, it was marred by bad weather. The main draw back was the problem with the accommodation, we really thought we would have to sleep in the car that night. However we saw the birds we came for (other rare migrants remained unseen but we didn’t have time for them) and we saw some dramatic scenery.

We were back at our hotel at about 8 o’clock. With the main birds under the belt we opted to spend the remaining three days sightseeing and that will be the subject of the next post.

 

 

Western India part 2: Bikaner and Khichan, Rajasthan – 16th January 2016   Leave a comment


India is famous for its raptors, but in recent years many species have undergone a serious decline, none more so than the resident species of vulture. This alarming loss of natures garbage disposal has meant that dead animals (roadkill etc) now lie beside the road to rot where they would have been consumed within hours in the past.

The cause of this dreadful decline which has reached 99.9% in most areas is due to the veterinary use of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (known as Voltorol when used in humans). The drug given prophylactically to cattle will cause renal failure in most vulture species that feed on the carcass. The four large resident species, White-rumped, Slender-billed, Indian and Red-headed are threatened with imminent extinction. Only the smaller Egyptian Vulture seems to be surviving.

In 1986 vultures (mainly White-rumped) were everywhere. Although the two trips are not directly comparable, the former trip was mainly in the east of Rajasthan and also visited the Himalayan foothills, but both involved visits to the Jaisalmer area.

Sorry this table is not aligned properly – it was pre-posting!

                                                                             1986                                2016

Black Kite                                                              2500                                    160
Red-headed Vulture                                            54                                        0
Cinereous (Black) Vulture                                   7                                        4
Eurasian Griffon Vulture                                   67                                      20
Slender-billed/Indian Vulture                         36                                         4
White-rumped Vulture                                      5000                                         1
Egyptian Vulture                                                 2500                                     160
Slender-billed and Indian Vultures were not split in 1986 hence the two species could not be separated for this table. All the ones seen on this tour were Indian Vultures. The species that showed the least decline were Cinereous and Griffon Vultures which are winter visitors (and as such have not been exposed to diclofenac to the same extent). Most of the 160 Egyptian Vultures were at the one site shown below..

 

 

IMG_2384 Bikiner fog

Early morning mists had not cleared as we arrived at the tip outside of Bikaner. As cattle are not for human consumption in most of India any carcasses are left in certain areas for scavengers to dispose of.

IMG_2423 Gippos and feral dogs

Although there were no fresh carcasses the area was full of Egyptian Vultures and feral dogs.

IMG_2449 puppies

We found this litter of puppies in a shallow depression, proof that the dogs were living wild.

IMG_2424. Bikiner tip

Surrounding trees were covered with Steppe Eagles and Egyptian Vultures.

IMG_2440 Gippo imm

Immature Egyptian Vulture.

IMG_2434 Gippo

Adult Egyptian Vulture

IMG_2459 Steppe Eagle

Immature Steppe Eagle – a winter visitor from Central Asia

IMG_2445 Griffon & Gippo

Also in the area where small numbers of Eurasian Griffon Vultures, another winter visitor to the area, but our only White-rumped Vulture of the entire trip was one seen briefly in flight. What a change compared to my visit 30 years ago.

IMG_2473 Black Kite

Although not affected by the poisoning effect of veterinary drugs, Black Kites have also shown a marked decline compared to my last visit.

IMG_2461 Black Drongo

This Black Drongo chose a rather unattractive perch to pose for a portrait.

IMG_2469 Variable Wheatear

Variable Wheatears come in three forms, all from different areas to the north and west; the almost all-black opistholeuca, the white-capped capistrata and the common and widespread picata (above).

IMG_2481 Nilgai

The huge Nilgai (aka the Blue Bull) is the Indian equivalent of the African Eland

IMG_2501 cultivated desert

A mammal I really wanted to see was the elegant Blackbuck, but all the areas where they have been seen before on this itinerary have been irrigated and turned over to agriculture.

IMG_2496 Chinkara

We did see the delicate Chinkara though.

IMG_2507 Kichan village

Later we made our way to the little village of Khichan. On the surface it looked like any other small Indian village but it held a wonderful secret.

IMG_2505 Brown Rock Chat

The Brown Rock Chat is a bird that ‘does what it says on the tin’ – its brown, it’s a chat and it perches on rocks. Nice though it is, it wasn’t the reason why we had come all this way.

IMG_2523 Demoiselle Cranes

Just around the corner there were a coupe of lakes absolutely packed with Demoiselle Cranes.

IMG_2593 Demoiselle Cranes

A rough count between those on the two lakes and those in the air came to about 8000.

IMG_2589 Demoiselle Cranes

As with all large gatherings of cranes their bugling calls filled the air.

IMG_2529 Demoiselle Cranes

I have seen spectacular large gatherings of Common, White-naped, Hooded, Red-crowned and Sandhill Cranes but these must be the most beautiful cranes of all.

IMG_2533 Demoiselle Cranes

The birds seemed largely undisturbed by the passing villagers.

IMG_2536 Demoiselle Cranes

The smallest of the 15 species of crane, Demoiselles breed in Central Asia and migrate over the Himalayas to winter in India. Small numbers turn up elsewhere and I have seen single birds in far-eastern Russia and Japan plus good numbers on their breeding grounds in Kazakhstan

IMG_2548 Demoiselle Cranes

The villagers of Khichan have had a long love affair with this beautiful bird. Each winter grain is put out for the birds in an enclosure within the village. This tradition persists even though Khichan is no longer as prosperous as it once was (due to end of trans-desert camel trains) and is now supported by donations from clansmen from abroad.

IMG_2520 Demoiselle Cranes

We didn’t see the birds in the enclosure as we were too early for ‘feeding time’ and it seemed pointless hanging round for ages when we had such wonderful views around the lakes.

IMG_2595 Pond Heron

Here are a few other birds we saw around the lakes – Indian Pond Heron

IMG_2575 Green Sand

A wintering Green Sandpiper from Siberia

IMG_2538 personata White Wag

Another wintering bird, this time from Central Asia – the personata race of White Wagtail aka ‘Masked Wagtail’

IMG_2581 Yellow Wag

Yellow Wagtails can be difficult to assign to race when not in breeding plumage but this is probably of the race thunbergi from the boreal zone of northern Europe or Siberia

IMG_2601 Little Grebe

Little Grebes are a resident species ….

IMG_2571 Red Wattled Lapwing

…. as is the ubiquitous Red-wattled Lapwing.

IMG_2618 Demoiselles and Doves

As we left a flock of Rock Doves flew over, but high above them were more Demoiselle Cranes flying in for the afternoon feast.

IMG_2617 Demoiselle Cranes

With many miles to go to our next stop, we could only marvel at this wonderful sight as we headed south to the town of Jaisalmer. Definitely one of the highlights of the entire trip.