Archive for the ‘Skua’ Tag

Central Peru part 7: the pelagic – 26th November 2016.   2 comments

This is the final post about the Central Peru tour I did in November 2016 and deals with the pelagic boat trip on the final day.

 

 

 

central-peru-map

Over the last 17 days we had followed this route clockwise from Lima. Now we were back at the capital for a final day of birding – not onshore but at sea on a pelagic trip 35 nautical miles (65 km) offshore.

 

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So early on the final day it was down to the docks ….

 

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…. to set off on our little open boat past the Peruvian Navy’s submarine ….

 

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and head out to sea ….

 

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As we passed the breakwater we saw a Hudsonian Whimbrel ….

 

surfbird-california-marlin-harms

…. as well as several Surfbirds, a bird with one of the strangest non-breeding distributions on the planet, after leaving their Alaska/Yukon breeding grounds the entire population occupies a narrow intertidal band a few metres wide and 17,500 km long from Alaska to the Straits of Magellan. I wasn’t quick enough to get a photo as the boat sped by so I used this shot by Marlin Harms from Wikipedia.

 

img_8574-the-coast-from-the-boat

Leaving the coast behind we headed towards the Islas Palominas ….

 

img_8542-inca-tern-flock

…. passing sizeable flocks of Inca terns …

 

img_8546-terns-and-boobies

…. and rocks covered with Peruvian Boobies.

 

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We spent some time at the Islas Palominas ….

 

img_8498-sealions

…. that held truly impressive numbers of South American Sea Lions.

 

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Many were hauled out on the rocks. The darker ones are still wet from their last swim.

 

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A small number of impressive bull sea lions were present.

 

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A boat load of people were in the water …

 

img_8479-sealion-at-sea

…. swimming with the sea lions ….

 

img_8497-swimming-with-sealions

…. whilst undoubtedly a great experience for the swimmers, I’m sure it disturbs the sea lions, all the individuals on shore are alert and moving up the rocks (our boat is much further away and the photo was taken with a 1000mm telephoto setting) ….

 

img_8506-offshore-island

…. in addition taking swimmers into such heavy surf close to the rocks is the height of folly (I was H&S man at work and can’t help doing ‘risk assessments’, even now).

 

img_8470-peruvian-boobies

Many other birds were seen including Peruvian Boobies, now much reduced in numbers compared to 30 years ago ….

 

img_8489-peruvian-boobies

…. although still providing a spectacle as they fly back to the rocks …

 

img_8478-peruvian-booby

Once very common the boobies, like several other birds of the Humboldt Current, have seen catastrophic declines due to over fishing and climate change have all had an impact.

 

img_8522-red-legged-cormorant

Three species of cormorant were seen, the elegant Red-legged ….

 

img_8544-neotropic-cormorant

….Neotropic, which is more usually seen on freshwater lakes and the Guanay Cormorant, which although the commonest, was never seen close enough to photograph.

 

img_8508-chilean-pelicans

Another ‘guanay’ bird is the Peruvian Pelican, a larger version of the more familiar Brown Pelican.

 

img_8560-guano-unloading-quay

For a centuries the droppings (guano) of all those cormorants and boobies was harvested for fertiliser apparently without harmful effects. However recently these ‘guanay’ birds particularly Guanay Cormorant have dropped markedly. On a similar trip in 1989 I recorded over 6000 Guanay Cormorants, this time we saw less than 1000. The major factors driving this decline seem to be the El Nino phenomena, climate change and overfishing. Here the loading platform and associated warehouses of the guano collectors can be seen.

 

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Other birds seen included the elegant Inca Tern ….

 

img_8531-inca-tern-flock

… often seen in large tightly knit flocks.

 

inca-terns

This lovely shot was taken by my friend and room-mate Steve Lowe.

 

img_8517-humbolt-penguins

The cold waters of the Humboldt Current which flows up from the Antarctic has allowed a separate species of penguin to evolve off the coast of central South America, named (perhaps unsurprisingly) Humboldt Penguin.

 

img_8553-blackish-oystercatcher

On the rocks were a number of Blackish Oystercatchers ….

 

img_8482-seaside-cinclodes

…. and the only passerine of the boat trip, Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes.

 

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Leaving the islands we headed out to deeper waters.

 

img_8499-belchers-gull-pos

On an earlier post I described Belcher’s Gull as being ‘inappropriately’ named. A friend pointed out that it wasn’t inappropriate as the species was named after an Mr Belcher, so perhaps I should have said ‘unfortunately’ named. The original Band-tailed Gull was split into two – the Atlantic Olrog’s Gull and the Pacific Belcher’s Gull. I suppose we should be grateful the Atlantic species wasn’t named after any other bodily function!

 

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We only saw a pair of the delicately plumaged and ‘appropriately’ named Grey Gull.

 

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Further out under the persistent grey clouds we saw our first Swallow-tailed Gulls.

 

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Swallow-tailed Gull breeds only on the Galapagos Islands (a location I have never visited). There are just two species of gull breeding on the Galapagos, the other – Lava Gull is one just of two gull species worldwide that I have never seen. The unusually large eyes must mean that it is adapted to foraging at night.

 

img_8380-swallow-tailed-gull

The upper-winged pattern makes Swallow-tailed look like a large version of Sabine’s Gull (an Arctic breeding species that also winters in the Humboldt current). We also saw Sabine’s on the pelagic but due to the rocking motion of the boat the photos were too poor to use.

 

img_8411-franklins-gull

Another gull we saw was Franklin’s Gull, named after legendary Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin whose expedition to discover the North-west Passage ended in such tragedy. The species breeds in the prairies of North America and winters in the Humboldt Current.

 

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The species occasionally turns up in the UK as a vagrant and I have seen it six times at home, all in Dorset or neighbouring Devon and Hampshire.

 

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A migrant from the opposite direction was this Chilean Skua which breeds in the far south of South America.

 

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Another migrant from the south was this White-chinned Petrel, the nearest breeding colonies are in the Falklands and South Georgia. Possibly not the best name for the species as the ‘white chin’ can be as little as a single white feather and can even be absent.

 

img_8401-storm-petrel-to-id

But one of the highlights of this pelagic was the storm-petrels. We saw no fewer than six species, four of which were life birds for me. These are Elliots (or White-vented Storm Petrels). The only known breeding grounds of this bird are the Galapagos and some islets off north Chile.

 

img_8403-white-vented storm-petrel

The diagnostic white vent and lower belly can be seen here, the pale panel in the underwing secondaries is best seen in the top photo.

 

IMG_5420 Wilson's SP

Wilson’s Storm-petrel is similar but much more widespread (the commonest seabird and possibly the commonest wild bird in the entire world, but we saw very few on this trip). It differs from Elliot’s by the lack of a white vent and a different flight action. I took this photo in the subantarctic in April 2016.

 

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I’ve been unable to conclusively identify the storm-petrel in this picture. It is in moult which the Elliot’s weren’t. I suppose it is a Wilson’s but I have never seen them looking this long-winged. The other four species we saw can be easily excluded by rump colouration/shape.

 

wedge-rumped_storm_petrel-brian-gratwicke

From the small and crowded boat, and not having my DSLR with me, I found photographing fast-moving stormies to be very hard. The following three pictures (all of life birds) have been taken from external sources. Wedge-rumped Storm-petrel breeds mainly on the Galapagos but also along the coasts of Peru and Chile. Photo (taken from Wikipedia) by Brian Gratwicke

 

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Another life bird was Markham’s Storm-petrel, a large and dark stormie. Until recently its breeding grounds were unknown but colonies (underground burrows) have been found several Km inland in the Atacama Desert of Peru and Chile. This photo by Cock Reijnders was taken from Internet Bird Collection. I also saw the northern hemisphere Black Storm-petrel which is very like Markham’s but is smaller with a different flight action.

 

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The most striking stormie was Hornby’s (or Ringed Storm-petrel). Its breeding grounds have never been discovered but are thought to be in the Atacama Desert. Photo by Cock Reijnders taken from Internet Bird Collection.

 

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But the best bird of the day and one of the top five birds of the trip was this Waved Albatross ….

 

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This magnificent bird breeds only on the Galapagos and is one of four albatross species confined to the northern and central Pacific.

 

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Waved Albatross is the new last albatross species that I will ever see. I hope to do a blog post on my observations of the world’s albatrosses soon but I need to assemble the photos, some of which are on 35mm slides.

 

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After our return to Lima we had a quick look at this lagoon near the port.

 

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As well as expected species like this Snowy Egret ….

 

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…. Grey-hooded Gull….

 

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…. and this adult Belcher’s Gull ….

 

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…. there were thousands upon thousands of Franklin’s Gulls. Our estimates varied from 20,000 to 100,000 but I made do with the lower estimate.

 

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Franklin’s Gull can be distinguished from the similar but larger Laughing Gull in winter by the partial black hood and prominent eye crescents.

 

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The gulls were easily spooked by people getting to close ….

 

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…. but the resultant clouds were quite spectacular.

 

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Franklin’s Gulls are unusual in that they have a complete moult after breeding ( as most gulls do ) and then again in the wintering grounds (a moult strategy shared as far as I know only by Willow Warbler). That said most of these individuals don’t seem to have started the moult yet.

 

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This lad seems oblivious to spectacle behind him.

 

From here is was just a short drive to a hotel for a wash and brush up and then to the airport for the flight home. All my foreign trips are interesting and rewarding experiences but this trip was exceptional in many respects. Peru is one of the most interesting of all Neotropical countries and I hope to return for a fourth visit sometime in the future.

23rd – 30th August 2014 – The Azores part 2   Leave a comment

This post deals solely with the seabirds we saw on the pelagic trips. If anyone is interested in these seabirds then I would highly recommend reading Magnus Robb and Killian Mullarney’s ‘Petrels night and day (Sound Approach)

 

IMG_5672 Cory's Shearwater

The commonest pelagic seabird was the Cory’s Shearwater which breeds in large numbers in the islands.

IMG_5670 Cory's

The species has recently been split into three; the smaller Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Scopoli’s Shearwater C diomeda whose breeding is almost confined to the Mediterranean (but winters off South Africa so must traverse the Atlantic) and Cory’s Shearwater C borealis which breeds only in the Azores, Madeira, Canary and related islands.

IMG_5269 Cory's Shearwater

One of the largest of shearwaters, Cory’s is easy to separate from Great, but telling it from a Scopoli’s on the pattern of white in the outer underwing would require a photo.

IMG_5352 Great Shears

The further out to sea we got the scarcer Cory’s and the commoner Great Shearwaters became.

IMG_5649 Great Shear

Great Shearwaters breed in the Tristan da Cunha group in the south Atlantic. After breeding they undergo a tremendous loop migration that takes them north to the Grand Banks off America and then south through the eastern Atlantic in our autumn.

IMG_4733 Sooty Shearwater

Sooty Shearwaters also breed in the Southern Atlantic and around Australia and New Zealand. Atlantic populations undergo a loop migration like Great Shearwaters although they peak in the eastern Atlantic a bit later in the autumn. The other tw shearwaters, Manx and Barolo’s were too distant or briefly seen to be photographed.

 

IMG_5581 LT Skua

We saw all four species of North Atlantic skua/jaeger; three Long-taileds (all adults) 3 Arctic/Parasitic, one Pom ……

IMG_5503 Bonxie

… and this bird which we assumed was a 2nd cy Great Skua (or Bonxie) from its moult pattern. South Polar Skua is another possibility, as like the large shearwaters it undergoes an Atlantic loop migration. If you can identify this bird conclusively either way then please leave a message. Postscript:  Dani Lopez-Velasco, who wrote a paper on the identification of South Polar Skua has conclusively identified it as a South Polar.

IMG_5484 Bulwer's Petrel

Far smaller than the shearwaters but larger than storm petrels, the little Bulwer’s Petrel was a wonderful sight. I saw seven during the trip.

IMG_5609 Monteiro's SP

The highlight the trip was the great views we got of four species of storm petrel. Our friend, Magnus Robb, wrote a wonderful book on the seabirds of the north Atlantic (Petrels Night and Day – The Sound Approach) and based mainly on vocalisations split ‘band-rumped storm petrel’ into four species. The form breeding on two islets off Graciosa, was already being described as Monteiro’s SP (photo above), it breeds in the summer whilst the other population, called Grant’s Storm Petrel (after the late and much missed birding guru Peter Grant) breeds in the winter. Grant’s is not confined to the Azores but also breeds (in winter) in the Canaries and Madeira and associated islands where it occurs with a third form, Madeiran Storm Petrel (that breeds in the summer). The fourth form breeds only in the Cape Verde Islands. Monteiro’s is treated as a full species by the world’s checklists but Grant’s is not recognised at all. All forms are vocally distinct and to some extent, genetically distinct. Thus we have a summer and winter breeding population in the Azores that are treated as two species and a summer and winter breeding population in the Canaries and Madeira that are treated as the same species. Something needs to change!

IMG_5389 Monteiro's SP

At this time of year Monteiro’s is ending its breeding cycle and is starting to moult and this can be clearly seen as a notch in the wing where the new, still growing inner primaries abut the old faded outer primaries. On some it was striking and could even be seen with naked eye. Another advantage of visiting in August is that this year’s juveniles will still be in the nest, so there is no confusion with recently fledged individuals with fresh flight feathers. Also Monteiro’s shows a clear notch in the tail, whereas Grant’s does not.

IMG_5633 Grant's SP

I am confident this is a Grant’s Storm Petrel with fresh flight feathers with no evidence of moult and a square ended tail.

IMG_5433 Grant's or Monteiro's SP

But some birds seem intermediate – the secondaries on this bird look fresh and contrast with the primaries, but there is no evidence of moult. Do Grant’s look like this post moult? There is a small tail fork but not as obvious as on the Monteiro’s. Is this another Grant’s?

IMG_5432 Monteiro's SP

The same can be said about this bird, is the apparent tail fork caused by the feet showing below the tail and is that a notch in the wing caused by moult or just the way the wing is bent? I think it’s a Grant’s but I’d appreciate informed comments.

IMG_5518 Swinhoe's SP

The best bird of the trip, was another species of storm petrel, the legendary Swinhoe’s. Breeding off Japan and Korea and wintering in the Indian Ocean, hardly surprisingly the only historic WP record was from Eilat, but in the 80s there was as series of captures by ringers at storm petrel colonies in Madeira, the Canaries, France and even the UK. They must be breeding somewhere in the north Atlantic! Since then there have been several more captures in the UK (including the last two years on Fair Isle) but the bird remains extremely hard to catch up with. As one of my goals is to see every bird on the British list somewhere in the world (now just four to go, Ascension Frigatebird, Aleutian Tern, Tufted Puffin and Red-throated Thrush) then seeing a Swinhoe’s had become a high priority.

IMG_5416 Wilson's SP

A third white-rumped species was Wilson’s Storm Petrel which breeds in Antarctica and also undergoes a loop migration, appearing in the eastern Atlantic in late summer. As well as being smaller with longer legs, a more curved wing shape and a more fluttery flight they can be distinguished by their moult pattern, at this time of year they have moulted all the primaries except the outer one or two.

IMG_5420 Wilson's SP

This bird seems to have replaced all its primaries in the left wing but is still growing the outermost primaries in the right wing.

IMG_5624 Common Tern

Common Terns lived up to their name but in spite of the Azores holding the WP’s largest population of Roseate Terns, they were surprisingly scarce, with the only sizable flock being seen briefly on the Teceira breakwater as we departed on the ferry.

IMG_5148 Sooty Tern best

Ilheu da Praia, a tiny islet off the NE of Graciosa not only holds almost the entire world’s population of Monteiro’s Storm Petrel but also the WP’s only breeding Sooty Terns. On the day we visited the sea was rough and we couldn’t come any closer to the island.

IMG_5201 Sooty Tern

However the single juvenile did briefly buzz the boat on a couple of occasions.

IMG_5748 AZ YL Gull head

The atlantis race of Yellow-legged Gull is a very impressive bird indeed. The heavily streaked hood and pale eye are distinctive. I have heard that a paper is in preparation which advocates its elevation to species status. Intermediate populations in the Canaries and Madeira are the problem with this approach however.

IMG_5496 BN Dolphin

I said this post was only about seabirds but I couldn’t resist including a couple of photos of Bottle-nosed Dolphins. We also saw Atlantic Spotted Dolphins, a Sperm Whale and the beaked whales that I uploaded on the last post.

IMG_5235 BN Dolphin

That concludes our Azores pelagic trip. In the words of the late great Douglas Adams ‘so long and thanks for all the fish’